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List of abbreviations

AACaugmentive or alternative communication
AAGBIAssociation of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland
ABGarterial blood gas
ABPMambulatory blood pressure monitoring
ADautonomic dysreflexia
ADHantidiuretic hormone
ADRadverse drug reaction
A&Eaccident and emergency
AEDautomated external defibrillator
AIDSacquired immune deficiency syndrome
ALARPas low as reasonably practicable
ALSadvanced life support
ALTalanine aminotransferase
ANHacute normovolaemic haemodilution
ANPatrial natriuretic peptide
ANSautonomic nervous system
ANTTaseptic non‐touch technique
APalkaline phosphatase/anteroposterior/alternating pressure
APTRactivated partial thromboplastin ratio
ARDSadult respiratory distress syndrome
ARTassisted reproductive techniques
ASAAmerican Society of Anesthesiologists
ASTaspartate aminotransferase
ATanaerobic threshold
AVPUalert, verbal, pain, unresponsive
BALbronchoalveolar lavage
BIAbio‐electrical impedance analysis
BiPAPbilevel positive airway pressure
BLSbasic life support
BMEblack and minority ethnic
BMIbody mass index
BNFBritish National Formulary
BPblood pressure
BSEbovine spongiform encephalopathy
CAUTIcatheter‐associated urinary tract infection
CCUcoronary care unit
cfucolony‐forming unit
CHGchlorhexidine gluconate
CJDCreutzfeldt–Jakob disease
CLPcontinuous low pressure
CNCPchronic non‐cancer pain
CNScentral nervous system
COcardiac output
COADchronic obstructive airways disease
COPDchronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPAPcontinuous positive airway pressure
CPETcardiopulmonary exercise testing
CPNBcontinuous peripheral nerve block
CPRcardiopulmonary resuscitation
CRPC‐reactive protein
CSFcerebrospinal fluid
CSPChartered Society of Physiotherapy
CSUcatheter specimen of urine
CTcomputed tomography
CTZchemoreceptor trigger zone
CVAcerebrovascular accident
CVADcentral venous access device
CVCcentral venous catheter
CVPcentral venous pressure
CXRchest X‐ray
DBEdeep breathing exercises
DICdisseminated intravascular coagulation
DKAdiabetic ketoacidosis
DMdiabetes mellitus
DNAdid not attend
DNARdo not attempt resuscitation
DPIdry powder inhaler
DREdigital rectal examination
DRFdigital removal of faeces
DVTdeep vein thrombosis
EBNevidence‐based nursing
EBPevidence‐based practice
ECFextracellular fluid
ECMextracellular matrix
EDTAethylenediamine tetra‐acetic acid
ELISAenzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay
EMRendoscopic mucosal resection
ENTEar, Nose and Throat
ESDendoscopic submucosal dissection
ESRerythrocyte sedimentation rate
ETTendotracheal tube
EUEuropean Union
EWSearly warning scoring
FBCfull blood count
FEESfibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing
FFPfresh frozen plasma
FRCfunctional residual capacity
FVCforced vital capacity
FWBfully weight bearing
GCSGlasgow Coma Scale
GFRglomerular filtration rate
GGTgamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase
GMCGeneral Medical Council
GM‐CSFgranulocyte macrophage‐colony stimulating factor
GSLgeneral sales list medicine
GTNglyceryl trinitrate
HBPMhome blood pressure monitoring
HBVhepatitis B virus
HCAhealthcare assistant
HCAIhealthcare‐associated infection
HCPhealthcare professional
HCVhepatitis C virus
HDUhigh‐dependency unit
HEPAhigh‐efficiency particulate air
HFEAHuman Fertilisation and Embryology Authority
HFOThigh‐flow oxygen therapy
HIVhuman immunodeficiency virus
HLAhuman leucocyte antigen
HMEheat and moisture exchanger
HOCFHome Oxygen Consent Form
HOOFHome Oxygen Ordering Form
HPAHealth Protection Agency
HPVhuman papillomavirus
HRheart rate
HSEHealth and Safety Executive
HTLVhuman T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus
IADincontinence‐associated dermatitis
IASPInternational Association for the Study of Pain
IBCTincorrect blood component transfused
ICinspiratory capacity
ICFintracellular fluid
ICPintracranial pressure
ICSintraoperative cell salvage
ICSIintracytoplasmic sperm injection
INRinternational normalized ratio
IPCTinfection prevention and control team
ISCintermittent self‐catheterization
ITDDintrathecal drug delivery
ITUintensive therapy unit
JVPjugular venous pressure
LAlocal anaesthetic
LBCliquid‐based cytology
LCTlong‐chain triglyceride
LMAlaryngeal mask airway
LMNlower motor neurone
LOSlower oesophageal sphincter
LPALasting Power of Attorney
MAOImonoamine oxidase inhibitor
MAPmean arterial pressure
MARmedicines administration record
MC&SMicroscopy, Culture and Sensitivity
MCTmedium‐chain triglyceride
MDAMedical Devices Agency
MDImetered dose inhaler
MDTmultidisciplinary team
MESAmicroepididymal sperm aspiration
METmedical emergency team
MHRAMedicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
MImyocardial infarction
MICminimum inhibitory concentration
MMPmatrix metalloprotease
MPQMcGill Pain Questionnaire
MRCMedical Research Council
MRImagnetic resonance imaging
MRSAmeticillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MSmultiple sclerosis
MSCCmetastatic spinal cord compression
MSUmidstream urine
MUACmid upper arm circumference
MUSTMalnutrition Universal Screening Tool
NATnucleic acid testing
NBMnil by mouth
NEWSNational Early Warning Score
NHSNational Health Service
NHSCSPNHS cervical screening programme
NIPEEnon‐invasive positive end‐expiration
NIVnon‐invasive ventilation
NMCNursing and Midwifery Council
NPCNational Prescribing Centre
NPSANational Patient Safety Agency
NPWTnegative pressure wound therapy
NRATNorgine Risk Assessment Tool
NRSnumerical rating scale
NSAIDnon‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug
NWBnon‐weight bearing
ODPoperating department practitioner
OSCEobjective structured clinical examination
OToccupational therapist
OTCover the counter
Ppharmacy‐only medicine
PACUpost‐anaesthetic care unit
PADpre‐operative autologous donation
PARTpatient‐at‐risk team
PCApatient‐controlled analgesia
PCEApatient‐controlled epidural analgesia
PDPHpost‐dural puncture headache
PEpulmonary embolus
PEApulseless electrical activity
PEEPpositive end‐expiratory pressure
PEFpeak expiratory flow
PEGpercutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy
PEPpost‐exposure prophylaxis
PESApercutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration
PGDPatient Group Direction
PHCTprimary healthcare team
PHNpost‐herpetic neuralgia
PICCperipherally inserted central cannula
PNparenteral nutrition
PNSperipheral nervous system
POApre‐operative assessment
POCTpoint‐of‐care testing
POMprescription‐only medicine
PONVpost‐operative nausea and vomiting
PPEpersonal protective equipment
PRBCpacked red blood cell
PrPprion protein
PSCCprimary/benign spinal cord compression
PUOpyrexia of unknown origin
PVCpolyvinyl chloride
PWBpartially weight bearing
PWOpartial withdrawal occlusion
RAright atrium
RASreticular activating system
RBCred blood cell
RCNRoyal College of Nursing
RCTrandomized controlled trial
RFIDradiofrequency identification tag
RIGradiologically inserted gastrostomy
RNIreference nutrient intake
RSVrespiratory syncytial virus
SaBTOSafety of Blood, Tissues and Organs
SAPSingle Assessment Process
SARSsevere acute respiratory syndrome
SBARSituation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation
SCCspinal cord compression
SCIspinal cord injury
SGAsubjective global assessment
SHOTSerious Hazards of Transfusion
SIMVsynchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation
SIRSsystemic inflammatory response syndrome
SIUspinal injuries unit
SLTspeech and language therapist
SMBGself‐monitoring of blood glucose
SNRIserotonin‐norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
SOPStandard Operating Procedure
SPasuprapubic aspirate
SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
SVstroke volume
SVCsuperior vena cava
swgstandard wire gauge
TACOtransfusion‐associated cardiac overload
TA‐GVHDtransfusion‐associated graft‐versus‐host disease
TCAtricyclic antidepressant
TEDthromboembolic deterrent
TENStranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TESEtesticular sperm extraction
TIVAtotal intravenous anaesthesia
TPITreponema pallidum immobilization
TRALItransfusion‐related acute lung injury
TSEtransmissible spongiform encephalopathy
TSStoxic shock syndrome
TTOto take out
TURBTtransurethral resection of bladder tumour
TURPtransurethral resection of prostate
UMNupper motor neurone
UTIurinary tract infection
VADvascular access device
VAPventilator‐associated pneumonia
VATVenous Assessment Tool
VBGvenous blood gas
vCJDvariant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
VDRLVenereal Disease Research Laboratory
VEGFvascular endothelial growth factor
VFventricular fibrillation
VPFvascular permeability factor
VTventricular tachycardia
VTEvenous thromboembolism
WBCwhite blood cell
WBITwrong blood in tube
WHOWorld Health Organization
WOBwork of breathing
WRWassermann reaction